A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are physicians and evaluate patients to determine whether their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental ailments or strictly mental issues. Sometimes a psychiatrist works within a multi-disciplinary team, which may comprise clinical psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists, and nursing staff. Psychiatrists have broad training in a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of mental illness.
As part of the clinical assessment process, psychiatrists may employ a mental status examination; a physical examination; brain imaging such as a computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography scan; and blood testing. Psychiatrists use pharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and/or interventional approaches to treat mental disorders.
The United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties in the United States offers certification and fellowship program accreditation in the subspecialties of behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry, which is open to both neurologists and psychiatrists.
Some psychiatrists specialize in helping certain age groups. Pediatric psychiatry is the area of the profession working with children in addressing psychological problems. Psychiatrists specializing in geriatric psychiatry work with the elderly and are called geriatric psychiatrists or geropsychiatrists. Those who practice psychiatry in the workplace are called occupational psychiatrists in the United States and occupational psychology is the name used for the most similar discipline in the UK. Psychiatrists working in the courtroom and reporting to the judge and jury, in both criminal and civil court cases, are called forensic psychiatrists, who also treat mentally disordered offenders and other patients whose condition is such that they have to be treated in secure units.
Psychiatrists work in a wide variety of settings. Some are full-time medical researchers, many see patients in private medical practices, and consult liaison psychiatrists see patients in hospital settings where psychiatric and other medical conditions interact.
In India, a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree is the basic qualification needed to do psychiatry. After completing an MBBS (including an internship), they can attend various PG medical entrance exams and get a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) in psychiatry, which is a 3-year course. Diploma course in psychiatry or DNB psychiatry can also be taken to become a psychiatrist.
In the Netherlands, one must complete medical school after which one is certified as a medical doctor. After a strict selection program, one can specialize for 4.5-years in psychiatry. During this specialization, the resident has to do a 6-month residency in the field of social psychiatry, a 12-month residency in a field of their own choice (which can be child psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, somatic medicine, or medical research). To become an adolescent psychiatrist, one has to do an extra specialization period of 2 more years. In short, this means that it takes at least 10.5 years of study to become a psychiatrist which can go up to 12.5 years if one becomes a children's and adolescent psychiatrist.
In the U.S. and Canada, one must first attain the degree of M.D. or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, followed by practice as a psychiatric resident for another four years (five years in Canada). This extended period involves comprehensive training in psychiatric diagnosis, psychopharmacology, medical care issues, and psychotherapies. All accredited psychiatry residencies in the United States require proficiency in cognitive behavioral, brief, psychodynamic, and supportive psychotherapies. Psychiatry residents are required to complete at least four post-graduate months of internal medicine or pediatrics, plus a minimum of two months of neurology during their first year of residency, referred to as an "internship". After completing their training, psychiatrists are eligible to take a specialty board examination to become board-certified. The total amount of time required to complete educational and training requirements in the field of psychiatry in the United States is twelve years after high school. The average salary for psychiatrists in the U.S. is $220,000 per year. Subspecialists in child and adolescent psychiatry are required to complete a two-year fellowship program, the first year of which can run concurrently with the fourth year of the general psychiatry residency program. This adds one to two years of training.
Peter Steinglass is a psychiatrist, clinical professor, and president emeritus and director of the Ackerman Center for Substance Abuse and the Family in New York. Dr. Steinglass has been a significant researcher and contributor to academic psychiatry and medical and mental health institutions with his work on understanding family factors in substance abuse treatment.
Each module was five pages long, including the plan for managing that particular condition. Since our outcome of interest was the detection of mental health conditions by trained HCWs, we excluded the management and follow-up sections from each module. We removed questions about emergency presentations such as alcohol intoxication or opioid withdrawal from the substance use disorders module since such presentations were rare in the PHC (as per the inputs by the PHC medical officer). Modifications were done by the research team after consultations with child and adolescent psychiatrists. We converted each module into a concise single-page algorithm to make it user-friendly for the HCWs. Since the mhGAP did not have an anxiety disorder module, it was prepared by the study team after receiving input from two psychiatrists. Face validation was carried out by an expert child psychiatrist. All modules were translated into Kannada. After pre-testing among Anganwadi workers (AWW) (primary level workers involved in child and adolescent health services), these modules were finalized. AWW were selected since they fit the cultural and demographic profile of our study participants. Before pre-testing, a mental health awareness session was conducted for AWW. Pretesting was done by briefing AWW about the modules by the investigator (AS). Following the briefing, AWW were asked to go through the modules for ease of understanding of question, wordings, and comprehension. They administered the selected modules to a group of adolescents visiting the anganwadi center to check whether the questions were understood by the adolescents and the time required for individual assessments. 2b1af7f3a8