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Having demonstrated record compressive strength, strain energy absorption, and compressive deformability both in absolute and in specific terms, the nanoarchitected IPCs introduced in this work constitute a major advancement of the field of nanoarchitected materials, providing important groundwork for widespread research efforts across different disciplines throughout materials sciences. With each of the phases within interpenetrating composites having the ability to contribute radically distinct characteristics, the approach evolves the nanoarchitecture of materials from a strategy focused to achieve certain lightweight characteristics to a broadly applicable concept to design novel multifunctional systems, which may exploit a variety of unique nanoscale properties. The compressive characteristics demonstrated here are highly beneficial for impact protection, damping, and tribological and abrasive systems (13). In synergy with their mechanical performance, IPCs can be designed to exhibit properties such as high-temperature stability, superior thermal shock resistance, and high electrochemical cyclability (13, 54). Regarding the mechanical performance of nanoarchitected metal/ceramic IPCs, it is emphasized that brittleness is typically most critical under tension. While the toughening mechanisms found here may be expected to be independent on the loading scenario, a detailed characterization of fracture toughness and tensile strength will be needed to quantify to which extent the superior compression behavior reported here translates to different load cases.
Composite materials are created from individual materials. These individual materials are known as constituent materials, and there are two main categories of it. One is the matrix (binder) and the other reinforcement. A portion of each kind is needed at least. The reinforcement receives support from the matrix as the matrix surrounds the reinforcement and maintains its relative positions. The properties of the matrix are improved as the reinforcements impart their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties become unavailable from the individual constituent materials by synergism. At the same time, the designer of the product or structure receives options to choose an optimum combination from the variety of matrix and strengthening materials.
Although the two phases are chemically equivalent, semi-crystalline polymers can be described both quantitatively and qualitatively as composite materials. The crystalline portion has a higher elastic modulus and provides reinforcement for the less stiff, amorphous phase. Polymeric materials can range from 0% to 100% crystallinity aka volume fraction depending on molecular structure and thermal history. Different processing techniques can be employed to vary the percent crystallinity in these materials and thus the mechanical properties of these materials as described in the physical properties section. This effect is seen in a variety of places from industrial plastics like polyethylene shopping bags to spiders which can produce silks with different mechanical properties. In many cases these materials act like particle composites with randomly dispersed crystals known as spherulites. However they can also be engineered to be anisotropic and act more like fiber reinforced composites. In the case of spider silk, the properties of the material can even be dependent on the size of the crystals, independent of the volume fraction. Ironically, single component polymeric materials are some of the most easily tunable composite materials known.
In general, particle reinforcement is strengthening the composites less than fiber reinforcement. It is used to enhance the stiffness of the composites while increasing the strength and the toughness. Because of their mechanical properties, they are used in applications in which wear resistance is required. For example, hardness of cement can be increased by reinforcing gravel particles, drastically. Particle reinforcement a highly advantageous method of tuning mechanical properties of materials since it is very easy implement while being low cost.
Although this minimum value is very low in practice, it is very important to know since the reason for the incorporation of continuous fibers is to improve the mechanical properties of the materials/composites, and this value of volume fraction is the threshold of this improvement. 2b1af7f3a8