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Mastering Cloud Computing is designed for undergraduate students learning to develop cloud computing applications. Tomorrow's applications won't live on a single computer but will be deployed from and reside on a virtual server, accessible anywhere, any time. Tomorrow's application developers need to understand the requirements of building apps for these virtual systems, including concurrent programming, high-performance computing, and data-intensive systems.
The book introduces the principles of distributed and parallel computing underlying cloud architectures and specifically focuses on virtualization, thread programming, task programming, and map-reduce programming. There are examples demonstrating all of these and more, with exercises and labs throughout.
This article is actually written by Kristen Michelle Goodgam (a Journalist and colleague in Melbourne University) after interviewing me. It aims at broader audience. So, we am expecting all everyone to understand it easily. Give it a try: -blueprint-for-greener-cloud-computing
17 PREFACE Cloud computing has recently emerged as one of the buzzwords in the ICT industry. Numerous IT vendors are promising to offer computation, storage, and application hosting services and to provide coverage in several continents, offering service-level agreements (SLA)-backed performance and uptime promises for their services. While these clouds are the natural evolution of traditional data centers, they are distinguished by exposing resources (computation, data/storage, and applications) as standards-based Web services and following a utility pricing model where customers are charged based on their utilization of computational resources, storage, and transfer of data. They offer subscription-based access to infrastructure, platforms, and applications that are popularly referred to as IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), and SaaS (Software as a Service). While these emerging services have increased interoperability and usability and reduced the cost of computation, application hosting, and content storage and delivery by several orders of magnitude, there is significant complexity involved in ensuring that applications and services can scale as needed to achieve consistent and reliable operation under peak loads. Currently, expert developers are required to implement cloud services. Cloud vendors, researchers, and practitioners alike are working to ensure that potential users are educated about the benefits of cloud computing and the best way to harness the full potential of the cloud. However, being a new and popular paradigm, the very definition of cloud computing depends on which computing expert is asked. So, while the realization of true utility computing appears closer than ever, its acceptance is currently restricted to cloud experts due to the perceived complexities of interacting with cloud computing providers. This book illuminates these issues by introducing the reader with the cloud computing paradigm. The book provides case studies of numerous existing compute, storage, and application cloud services and illustrates capabilities and limitations of current providers of cloud computing services. This allows the reader to understand the mechanisms needed to harness cloud computing in their own respective endeavors. Finally, many open research problems that have arisen from the rapid uptake of cloud computing are detailed. We hope that this motivates the reader to address these in their own future research and xv
18 xvi PREFACE development. We believe the book to serve as a reference for larger audience such as systems architects, practitioners, developers, new researchers, and graduate-level students. This book also comes with an associated Web site (hosted at containing pointers to advanced on-line resources. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK This book contains chapters authored by several leading experts in the field of cloud computing. The book is presented in a coordinated and integrated manner starting with the fundamentals and followed by the technologies that implement them. The content of the book is organized into six parts: I. Foundations II. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS ) III. Platform and Software as a Service (PaaS/SaaS) IV. Monitoring and Management V. Applications VI. Governance and Case Studies Part I presents fundamental concepts of cloud computing, charting their evolution from mainframe, cluster, grid, and utility computing. Delivery models such as Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Software as a Service are detailed, as well as deployment models such as Public, Private, and Hybrid Clouds. It also presents models for migrating applications to cloud environments. Part II covers Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), from enabling technologies such as virtual machines and virtualized storage, to sophisticated mechanisms for securely storing data in the cloud and managing virtual clusters. Part III introduces Platform and Software as a Service (PaaS/IaaS), detailing the delivery of cloud hosted software and applications. The design and operation of sophisticated, auto-scaling applications and environments are explored. Part IV presents monitoring and management mechanisms for cloud computing, which becomes critical as cloud environments become more complex and interoperable. Architectures for federating cloud computing resources are explored, as well as service level agreement (SLA) management and performance prediction. Part V details some novel applications that have been made possible by the rapid emergence of cloud computing resources. Best practices for architecting cloud applications are covered, describing how to harness the power of loosely coupled cloud resources. The design and execution of applications that leverage
19 PREFACE xvii cloud resources such as massively multiplayer online game hosting, content delivery and mashups are explored. Part VI outlines the organizational, structural, regulatory and legal issues that are commonly encountered in cloud computing environments. Details on how companies can successfully prepare and transition to cloud environments are explored, as well as achieving production readiness once such a transition is completed. Data security and legal concerns are explored in detail, as users reconcile moving their sensitive data and computation to cloud computing providers. Rajkumar Buyya The University of Melbourne and Manjrasoft Pty Ltd., Australia James Broberg The University of Melbourne, Australia Andrzej Goscinski Deakin University, Australia
31 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLOUD COMPUTING WILLIAM VOORSLUYS, JAMES BROBERG, and RAJKUMAR BUYYA 1.1 CLOUD COMPUTING IN A NUTSHELL When plugging an electric appliance into an outlet, we care neither how electric power is generated nor how it gets to that outlet. This is possible because electricity is virtualized; that is, it is readily available from a wall socket that hides power generation stations and a huge distribution grid. When extended to information technologies, this concept means delivering useful functions while hiding how their internals work. Computing itself, to be considered fully virtualized, must allow computers to be built from distributed components such as processing, storage, data, and software resources . Technologies such as cluster, grid, and now, cloud computing, have all aimed at allowing access to large amounts of computing power in a fully virtualized manner, by aggregating resources and offering a single system view. In addition, an important aim of these technologies has been delivering computing as a utility. Utility computing describes a business model for on-demand delivery of computing power; consumers pay providers based on usage ( payas-you-go ), similar to the way in which we currently obtain services from traditional public utility services such as water, electricity, gas, and telephony. Cloud computing has been coined as an umbrella term to describe a category of sophisticated on-demand computing services initially offered by commercial providers, such as Amazon, Google, and Microsoft. It denotes a model on which a computing infrastructure is viewed as a cloud, from which businesses and individuals access applications from anywhere in the world on demand . The main principle behind this model is offering computing, storage, and software as a service. Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms, Edited by Rajkumar Buyya, James Broberg and Andrzej Goscinski Copyright r 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3
32 4 INTRODUCTION TO CLOUD COMPUTING Many practitioners in the commercial and academic spheres have attempted to define exactly what cloud computing is and what unique characteristics it presents. Buyya et al.  have defined it as follows: Cloud is a parallel and distributed computing system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualised computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements (SLA) established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers. Vaquero et al.  have stated clouds are a large pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resources (such as hardware, development platforms and/or services). These resources can be dynamically reconfigured to adjust to a variable load (scale), allowing also for an optimum resource utilization. This pool of resources is typically exploited by a pay-per-use model in which guarantees are offered by the Infrastructure Provider by means of customized Service Level Agreements. A recent McKinsey and Co. report  claims that Clouds are hardwarebased services offering compute, network, and storage capacity where: Hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer, buyers incur infrastructure costs as variable OPEX, and infrastructure capacity is highly elastic. A report from the University of California Berkeley  summarized the key characteristics of cloud computing as: (1) the illusion of infinite computing resources; (2) the elimination of an up-front commitment by cloud users; and (3) the ability to pay for use... as needed... The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)  characterizes cloud computing as... a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. In a more generic definition, Armbrust et al.  define cloud as the data center hardware and software that provide services. Similarly, Sotomayor et al.  point out that cloud is more often used to refer to the IT infrastructure deployed on an Infrastructure as a Service provider data center. While there are countless other definitions, there seems to be common characteristics between the most notable ones listed above, which a cloud should have: (i) pay-per-use (no ongoing commitment, utility prices); (ii) elastic capacity and the illusion of infinite resources; (iii) self-service interface; and (iv) resources that are abstracted or virtualised. In addition to raw computing and storage, cloud computing providers usually offer a broad range of software services. They also include APIs and development tools that allow developers to build seamlessly scalable applications upon their services. The ultimate goal is allowing customers to run their everyday IT infrastructure in the cloud. A lot of hype has surrounded the cloud computing area in its infancy, often considered the most significant switch in the IT world since the advent of the 2b1af7f3a8